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Diuretic, antidiuretic and laxative activities of <i>Anthocleista vogelii</i> extracts in rats

Gabriel O. Anyanwu
Chukwu E. Onyeneke
Patricia Chioma Ofoha
Khalid Rauf
Nisar-ur-Rehman ur-Rehman
Usunomena Usunobun


Background: Anthocleista vogelii Planch is a medicinal plant used by traditional healers in the treatment of Malaria, hypertension, ulcer, obesity, diabetes, and as a diuretic and purgative in Africa. Therefore, the present study sought to evaluate the diuretic, antidiuretic and laxative activities of the root bark of A. vogelii extracts and fractions in male Sprague-Dawley rats.
Materials and methods: Sixty rats were placed in 10 groups which included: control (normal saline), furosemide/sodium picosulfate (25 mg/kg) as standard drugs, methanol extracts (250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg), and 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg of saponin, flavonoid and neutral alkaloid fractions of A. vogelii. The drugs/extracts/fractions were administered orally using normal saline as the vehicle.
Results: The 500 mg/kg methanol extracts (ME) significantly increased (p<0.05) the urine volume and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) excreted, while 125 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg flavonoid fraction (FF) decreased significantly (p<0.05) urine volume and electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-) excreted, but doses of saponin fraction (SF) and neutral alkaloid fraction (NAF) had no significant difference (p<0.05) compared to the control after 5 hrs. ME, SF, NAF significantly increased (p<0.05) the fecal output of the animals when compared to the control, while FF showed no significant difference (p<0.05) after 8 hrs of administration.
Conclusions: This study determined that ME revealed diuretic activity, although not remarkable to furosemide, while FF showed antidiuretic activity, and potent laxative activities were discovered in ME and SF of A. vogelii.

Keywords: Anthocleista vogelii, Diuretic, Anti-Diuretic, Laxative, Traditional healers

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eISSN: 0189-6016