Anticancer potential of plant extracts from Riyadh (saudi Arabia) on MDA-MB- 231 breast cancer cells
Background: Medicinal plants have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of numerous diseases worldwide. There is a dire need for new anticancer agents and plants used in traditional medicine are a particularly useful source.
Materials and methods: In this study, extracts of five different plants that grow in the desert of Saudi Arabia were evaluated to assess their cytotoxicity against the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Soxhlet extraction was used for the leaves and stems, using different solvents. The cytotoxicity of these extracts against MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells was assessed using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays. The apoptotic cellular morphological changes were observed using inverted and fluorescence microscopes.
Results: Our results showed that two of the five different medicinal plants (Rumex vesicarius and Malva parviflora) exhibited strong anticancer activity against the breast cancer cells. Specifically, 2 of the 40 extracts (from the five studied plants) showed promising activity. The chloroform extract of the stem of R. vesicarius (RSV CHCL3) exhibited moderate anticancer activity with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 230 μg/mL while that of the hexane extract of M. parviflora stems (MPS Hex) was 248 μg/mL. Loss of cell integrity, shrinkage of the cytoplasm, and cell detachment were observed in the extract-treated MDA-MB-231 cells.
Conclusion: R. vesicarius and M. parviflora chloroform and n-hexane stem extracts showed significant cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-231 human breast carcinoma cells.
Keywords: Anticancer, Malva parviflora, Rumex vesicarius, Hoechst 33342