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Background: Hammada scoparia (Pomel) Iljin (HS), is commonly used by traditional healers in Morocco against microbial and fungal infections. We studied antimicrobial, antifungal and antiradical effects of organic extracts in vitro in order to confirm traditional utilization after phytochemical screening.
Materials and methods: Aerial parts of HS have been extracted by hydro-distillation using Clevenger-type apparatus, and the chemical composition was realized by Gas Chromatography coupled with Mass Spectroscopy (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity has been evaluated using DPPH test, while the antimicrobial tests of HS extract were conducted on twenty-eight bacterial strains and antifungal on twelve fungal strains.
Results: Chemical characterization of HS essential oils (EO) confirmed the presence of carvacrol (82,28%), p-cymene (2,52%), γ- terpinene (2,18%) and Z-caryophyllene (2,04%). Antimicrobial tests of HS extract showed a moderate antibacterial activity without antifungal effect. In addition, HS exhibited a very powerful antiradical activity with IC50 = 1,2 mg/ml compared to that of ascorbic acid (IC50 = 0,5 mg/mL) and butylated hydroxyanisole (0,8 mg/mL).
Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that HS directly inhibits the growth of microorganisms in vitro, and further validates its traditional use as an antiseptic by traditional Moroccan healers.
Keywords: polyphenolics, Hammada scoparia, antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant.