Biochemical and toxicological studies of aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (l.) Merr. & perry (myrtaceae) in rodents
The effects of long-term administration of boiled aqueous extract of Syzigium aromaticum (SYZ), commonly known as clove (which has been locally employed for treating gastrointestinal tract diseases and also used as food spices), on some biochemical indices, such as body weight, liver functions and blood parameters were studied in adult albino rats of both sexes. Selected doses of 300 and 700 mg kg-1 were given orally through cannular to groups of animals for a period of 90 days, while the control group received distilled water throughout the duration of study via the same route. Blood samples collected after therapy and assayed for activities of some liver enzymes recorded a significant (p<0.05) and prominent effect on ALP and AST. Measurement of haematological parameters also revealed significant effects (p<0.05; p<0.001) on Hb, RBC (p<0.05), PCV (p<0.001), platelets (p<0.001) and granulocytes (p<0.001). An insignificant reduction was recorded for total WBC. The histopathological study conducted was in consonance with the results of the biochemical investigations that the aqueous extract of SYZ even at moderate doses, significantly affects body organs, their enzymes as well as the various functions. LD50 for both intraperitoneal and oral routes of SYZ were 263 and 2500 mg kg-1 respectively. The present work has revealed the toxicity of sub chronic administration of SYZ, which suggests that its prolonged usage must be avoided.
Key Words: Syzigium aromaticum, toxicity, biochemical parameters, haematological parameters, aqueous extract.