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This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of Salmonella species among children having diarrhea in Katsina State, Nigeria. A total of 220 diarrhea stool samples of children aged five years and below (0-5 years) were collected and screened for Salmonella species using culture technique. Presumptively positive isolates were further screened biochemically and serologically, using MicrogenTM Enterobactericeae ID kit and MicrogenTM Salmonella rapid confirmatory latex agglutination test kit. Antibiotic susceptibility of confirmed isolates was carried out and resistance patterns of the isolates determined. The highest incidence was observed in children of 13-24 months of age and the least in children of 0-12 months of age. There was a higher prevalence in male than female children. All the isolates screened were resistant to Ampicillin and Amoxicillin and of these, 90.9% were resistant to Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and 45.5% were resistant to Nalidixic acid. However, 100% were sensitive to Gentamicin, 90.9% were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Cefotaxime and 9.09% showed reduced susceptibility to Ciprofloxacin. Both the occurrence of Salmonella in children and their resistance to multiple antibiotics as observed are of public health significance. The vein of this study underscores the importance of routine monitoring of the incidence of Salmonella and continued health education of caregivers.
Keywords: Antibiotic resistance; Prevalence of Salmonella; Childhood diarrhea; Katsina State; Antibiotics susceptibility of Salmonella