Profile of Microvascular Disease in Type 2 Diabetes in a Tertiary Health Care Hospital in India
Keywords: Microangiopathy, Nephropathy, Retinopathy, Sensory neuropathy, Type 2 diabetes
AbstractBackground: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder complicated by microvascular and macrovascular diseases. The clinical profile of these complications has not been adequately studied in many tertiary health care centers in India. Aim: The authors studied the clinical profile of microvascular diabetes complications [peripheral sensory neuropathy (PSN), diabetic retinopathy (DR), nephropathy] in patients attending a tertiary care hospital in India. Subjects and Methods: In this cross.sectional study, patients (n = 1529) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were studied for the presence of complications. PSN was diagnosed when the vibration perception threshold of big toe was >25 V. Retinopathy was diagnosed using direct ophthalmoscopy (presence of microaneurysms, exudates, and hemorrhages), and nephropathy with microalbuminuria (.30 mg/l albumin in a spot urine sample) or low creatinine clearance (<90 ml/min) using Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results: PSN was present in 37% (565/1529), nephropathy in 20% (297/1529), and retinopathy in 17% (256/1529) of the study population. Microvascular complications are seen in 48% (734/1529) patients of the study population.Increasing age (P < 0.001), long duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), and higher HbA1c (P = 0.036) were the common risk factors for all complications. Hypertriglyceridemia (P = 0.016) and low body weight (P = 0.039) predisposed to retinopathy over other microangiopathies. Overall, nephropathy was associated strongly with retinopathy (P = 0.015). Conclusions: The data showed that neuropathy was the most common microangiopathy and coexisted with other complications in many patients. Old age, long duration of disease, and poor glycemic control are the common risk factors for microvascular complications. Keywords: Microangiopathy, Nephropathy, Retinopathy, Sensory neuropathy, Type 2 diabetes
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