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Introduction: Breast cancer remains the most common malignancy in women and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this gender. The disease in the indigenous African woman is associated with an inherent aggressive biology and worst clinical outcome. As the malignancy is a heterogeneous entity, each case must be individually categorized for efficient therapy. Current clinical practice employs the use of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), as biomarkers to appropriately select patients that would benefit from targeted therapy against these major molecular pathways of the disease. This study aims at establishing the ER, PR, and HER2 status of breast cancer in women visiting the Jos University Teaching Hospital.
Materials and Methods: All histologically confirmed cases of breast cancer at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2012, with sufficient clinical records, were subjected to immunohistochemistry for the ER, PR, and HER2 status.
Results: A total of 96 cases of female breast cancers were histologically diagnosed during the period of the study. Sixty‑three (65.6%) cases met the inclusion criteria. The predominant histological type was invasive carcinoma (no special type) accounting for 54 (85.7%) cases. Scarf Bloom Richardson Grade 1, 2, and 3 for the cancer cases were: 18 (28.6%), 29 (46.0%), and 16 (25.4%), respectively. The rate of ER, PR, and HER2 positivity were 36.5%, 28.6%, and 33.3%, respectively. There were 26 (41.3%) triple‑negative cases.
Conclusion: The study shows a relatively low rate of hormone‑receptor positivity, and higher HER2 positivity of breast cancers in our locality, which may be responsible for poor prognosis in our patients.
Keywords: Breast, cancer, estrogen, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2, Jos, progesterone, receptor