Trypanocidal efficacy of Allium sativum bulb extract, diminazene aceturate and their combination on experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection in rats

  • IJ Peni
  • H Yusuf
  • CM Elinge
  • B Agaie
  • D Dauda
Keywords: Allium sativum, diminazene aceturate, trypanosoma brucei brucei, rats

Abstract

The therapeutic activity of aqueous extract of Allium sativum (garlic) diminazene aceturate and their combinations were investigated in Wister albino rats infected with Trypanasoma brucei brucei. The criteria used in the assessment of the trypanocidal effects of the agents included the degree of parasitaemia observed daily for parasite, clinical changes during treatment and after treatment, possible death, haematological changes before and after treatment and frequency of relapse. . Rats treated with sub therapeutic dose of Allium sativum (20 mg/kg) and Diminazene aceturate (1.75 mg/kg) in combination remained parasite free throughout the 60 days of observation. Similar result was obtained in rats treated with diminazene aceturate (3.5 mg/kg) alone. However relapse parasitaemia occurred in rats treated with 40 mg/kg Allium sativum alone (p<0.05). This observation was accompanied by improved haematological indices such as PCV, WBC count, haemoglobin concentration as well as absence of death (p<0.05). Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the plant extract revealed the presence of alkaloid (4.3g of w/w) and 2.3 g%ww of saponin. The combination of these two agents appear to act synergistically, while aqueous extract of Allium sativum appears to possibly potentiate the chemotherapeutic activity of diminazene aceturate in the treatment of T. brucei brucei infection in rats.

Key words: Allium sativum, diminazene aceturate, trypanosoma brucei brucei, rats

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eISSN: 0794-4721