Label information, nutritional composition and screening for bromate in breads sold in Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria

  • F.U. Ugwuona
  • I.S. Asogwa
  • N.A. Obeta
  • F.N. Okeke
Keywords: market bread, Umuahia, label information, bromate-free, quality


Non-use of potassium bromate in bread making and printing of reproducible nutrition information/claims on bread labels are vital for consumers’ rights and protection in Nigeria. These norms are rarely observed by bread makers in Umuahia. This study evaluated nutrition information on labels, presence of potassium bromate, chemical composition and sensory characteristics of breads sold in Umuahia. Two structured questionnaires were constructed. The first was administered to 15 randomly selected full-time bread vendors in Umuahia metropolis to identify brands of market bread. The second was designed to analyze sensory quality of breads. Five sliced and five unsliced bread samples randomly selected from identified markets were analyzed for sensory properties using a 20-member sensory panelist, and for nutrient and phytochemical composition. Twenty-seven bread samples were identified; all labeled bromate-free, had varying recipes and nutrient claim/information on labels. The bread samples were bromate-free, high in carbohydrate (49.20% in B10 to 65.69% in B8) and moisture (22.67% in B8 to 38.16% in B10), but relatively low in crude protein (6.65% in B3 to 9.45% in B7) and fat (0.26% in B8 to 0.66% in B1). Ash contents ranged from 1.26% in B6 to 1.86% in B3and fiber contents from 1.24% in B2 to 1.76% in B5. Phytonutrients were low; and oxalate content ranged from 0.66 to 0.95%, tannin from 87.78 to 125.40 mg 100g–1 and phytate from 2.02 to 3.03 mg 100g–1. The bread samples had sensory scores ranging from 4.60 to 8.10 for over-all acceptability. They were all acceptable to panelists, but with B1 (sliced) and B8 (unsliced) most acceptable. Bread samples sold in Umuahia were bromate-free, varied in recipe, nutrition claims, and nutrient composition but were acceptable to panelists. 


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eISSN: 1119-7455