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The Cape Verdean islands form a distinct aquatic freshwater ecoregion characterized mainly by temporal water bodies with an adapted invertebrate community. Freshwater fish were not previously recorded from the archipelago. During a non-exhaustive survey of freshwater bodies on five islands of the archipelago, the first presence of a freshwater fish was recorded. Using barcoding sequences, the species was identified as the guppy (Poecilia reticulata), a highly invasive species alien to the Cape Verdean Islands.
Key words: Cape Verde, guppy, Poecilia reticulata, Macaronesia.