Enzootic Nasal Adenocarcinoma: Cytological and Clinicopathological Observations in a West African Dwarf Goat
Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma (ENA), a contagious retroviral disease of sheep and goats, characterized by neoplastic growth of the ethmoidal mucosa in the nasal cavity is described in a West African Dwarf goat (WAD). A two-year old WAD goat, weighing approximately 20kg was observed in the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria. The WAD goat was presented with a clinical history of 31/2 months seromucoid to mucopurulent nasal discharge, dyspnoea with audible rales, stertorous breathing with open mouth, coughing and sneezing. Cytological evaluation revealed anaplastic features such as hyperchromasia and binucleation with 2 or more nucleoli. Haematological profile revealed leukocytosis, due to lymphocytosis initially, which later changed to neutrophilia with left shift, however, the was absence of anaemia. Grossly, there was unilateral, left facial swelling, bilateral, separate and discrete nodular and papillary tumourous masses in each nasal cavity with concomitant inflammation, necrosis and distortion of the nasal bones, turbinates and the median septum. Microscopically, two forms of the tumour mass were observed, which include; polyploidy and papillary forms and characterized by well-differentiated tubulo-acinar and cystic glands with their content Periodic Acid Schiff positive for glycoprotein. This report, to the best of our knowledge, is the first reported case of ENA in WAD goats in Nigeria.
Keywords: Enzootic nasal adenocarcinoma, West African Dwarf goat, Nigeria.