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Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa

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Assessment of drug usage and antimicrobial residues in milk on smallholder farms in Morogoro, Tanzania

Evaluation de l'utilisation des medicaments et determination des residus antimicrobiens dans le lait dans les petites exploitations agricoles a Morogoro en Tanzanie

ED Karimuribo, RH Mdegela, LJM Kusiluka, DM Kambarage

Abstract


Questionnaire survey and on-farm inspection were used to establish types of drugs used to treat livestock diseases, to collect information on occurrence of clinical mastitis and milk discarding practices on 59 randomly selected smallholder dairy farms in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania. Milk samples were also collected for evaluation of antimicrobial drug residues using three tests; the Delvotest® SP, agar well diffusion and agar plate disc assays. On the day of farm visit, 25.4% of study farms had various drugs used to treat animals, categorised as antimicrobials (54.2%), anthelmintics (25.0%), anti-protozoans (8.3%), pesticides (8.3%) and anti-anaemics (4.2%). In addition, 25 farmers reported to have observed clinical mastitis in cows and 84% of them used intramammary infusions to treat infected quarters. During the validation, all the tests detected dihydrostreptomycin, oxytetracycline and gentamicin below the Codex Alimentarius recommended Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) but disparities were observed with reference to detection of penicillin residues. The DelvotestSP was found to be more reliable than the other two tests. Only 1 (1.7%) of 59 milk samples screened had antimicrobial residues as detected by the Delvotest SP suggesting that antimicrobial residues in milk in the smallholder farms in Morogoro municipality may not be a serious problem.

Keywords: drugs, residues, smallholder farms, Morogoro, Tanzania

Rsum

On a eu recours une enqute par questionnaire et une inspection au niveau des fermes, en vue de dterminer les types de mdicaments utiliss pour traiter les maladies animales, recueillir des informations sur l'incidence de la mammite clinique et sur les pratiques qui consistent jeter le lait, dans 59 petites fermes laitires choisies au hasard dans la municipalit de Morogoro en Tanzanie. Des chantillons de lait taient galement collects, afin d'valuer les rsidus de mdicaments antimicrobiens l'aide de trois tests: le Delvotest SP, le Test de diffusion en glose et le Test sur plaque l'agar. Le jour de la visite de la ferme, 25,4% des fermes faisant l'objet d'tudes avaient recours divers mdicaments pour traiter les animaux. Les mdicaments taient classs comme suit: antimicrobiens (54,2%), anthelminthiques (25%), antiprotozoaires (8,3%), pesticides (8,3%) et anti-anmiques (4,2%). Par ailleurs, 25 paysans ont dclar avoir observ la mammite clinique chez les vaches et 84% d'entre eux avaient recours aux infusions intramammaires pour traiter les quartiers infects. Lors de la validation, tous les tests dtectaient la dihydrostresptomycine, l'oxyttracycline et la gentamycine en-dessous de la limite maximum de rsidu recommande par le Codex Alimentarius, mais des disparits ont t notes quant la dtection de rsidus de pnicilline. Le Delvotest SP s'est avr plus fiable que les deux autres tests. Seul 1/59 chantillons de lait (1,7%) examins avait des rsidus antimicrobiens, tel que dtect par le Delvotest® SP, ce qui montre que les rsidus antimicrobiens dans le lait dans les petites fermes laitires dans la municipalit de Morogoro ne constituaient pas un srieux problme.

Mots-cls: mdicaments, rsidus, petites exploitations agricoles, Morogoro, Tanzanie

Bulletin of Animal Health and Production Journal Vol. 53(4) 2005: 234-241



http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bahpa.v53i4.32716
AJOL African Journals Online