Experimental Solanum incanum L. poisoning in goats

  • A.G Thaiyah
  • P.N Nyaga
  • J.M Maribei
  • D Nduati
  • P.G Mbuthia
  • T.A Ngatia
Keywords: Poisonous plants, Solanum incanum, Solanaceae, cerebellar disease, diseases of goats, neuropathology

Abstract

A study was carried out to determine the toxicity of unripe fruits of S. incanum L in goats. Dried unripe fruits of S. incanum L, were orally fed to goats at a dose rate of 0 (group1), 0.75 (group 2), 1.5 (group 3) and 2.25 (group 4) g/Kg /day for 9 weeks. Clinical signs were observed daily while blood with and without anticoagulant was taken weekly for haematological and biochemical analysis. Clinical signs started on day two with shivering. All group 4 goats (2.25g/ kg) showed bloat, colic, coughing and shivering while one goat had additional signs of depression, staggering gait and continuous bleating before death. One goat in group 3 (1.5g/kg) had bloat, shivering, progressive weakness, depression, staggering gait, lateral recumbency, leg paddling movements, continuous bleating and death while the rest were asymtomatic. All group 2 goats (0.75g/kg) were asymptomatic. Group 4 goats had hydroperitoneum and hydropericardium while group 3 had hydroperitoneum and fibrinous pericarditis. Group 2 goats had no significant pathology. On histopathology the brain of group 3 and 4 goats showed microthrombi, marked wallerian degeneration of neurons and necrosis of purkinje cells while group 2 goats only showed congestion. Other organs in the body also showed significant pathology. The results indicate that unripe fruits of S. incanum L are toxic to goats and allowing animals to graze on this plant could be deleterious to their health.

Key words: Poisonous plants, Solanum incanum, Solanaceae, cerebellar disease, diseases of goats, neuropathology

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