An assessment of prevalence and risk factors for hypertension and diabetes during world diabetes day celebration in Kumasi, Ghana
Background: Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs), in particular diabetes and hypertension are projected to overtake infectious diseases in Low-Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Ghana continues to increasingly show towards double burden diseases of both communicable and non-communicable diseases. We present here an assessment of the prevalence and some risk factors for hypertension and diabetes in a rapidly urbanizing and most populous region of Ghana.
Methods: The study was conducted in Kumasi the regional capital of the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Prior notifications for medical screening for hypertension and diabetes were made through announcements on six radio stations with the largest listenership. Health workers were trained and placed at designated peri-urban hospitals for the exercise. We then screened these healthy adults for hypertension and diabetes as part of the celebration for the World Diabetes Day.
Results: A total of 1292 individuals were screened. Overall prevalence for diabetes and hypertension were 25.2% and 20.7% respectively. Prevalence for diabetes and hypertension in otherwise healthy (new cases) were 13.9% and 14.3% respectively. Hypertension was comparable among men and women (OR=1.1, p=0.62, CI; 0.80-1.44) but increased with age [(OR=8.3, p< 0.0001, 95% CI; 3.3 – 20.6] and weight [OR=1.8, p< 0.0001, 95% CI; 1.37 – 2.45]. Diabetes was also comparable among men and women (OR=0.85, p=0.24, 95% CI; 0.65-1.11) but increased with age (OR=2.0, p= 0.004, 95% CI; 1.24 – 3.21) and weight (OR=1.8, p< 0.0001, 95% CI; 1.37 – 2.34). The main risk factors were overweight and obesity.
Conclusion: Healthy individuals within the population sampled have hypertension and diabetes and may remain undetected if not actively encouraged to screen especially for those 40 years. World Diabetes Day could be used as a tool to encourage the population to get screened and managed for hypertension and diabetes.
Key words: Hypertension, Diabetes, Risk factors, World Diabetes Day