Prevalence of nutritional rickets among symptomatic children and associated risk factors in Specialised Sam Paediatric Centre Yemen
Background: Nutritional rickets (NR) is more prevalent in economically deprived, developing countries.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of NR and associated risk factors among symptomatic children.
Design: A record-based descriptive study.
Setting: Specialised Sam Pediatric Center (SSPC) Sana’a city Yemen during three years from 2011 to 2013.
Subjects: Out of the 645 patients seen with symptoms and/or signs of rickets, 615 (95.35%) were included in the study and diagnosed as NR. The diagnosis was based on clinical finding and radiological and laboratory investigations.
Results: The prevalence of NR among symptomatic children aged 0-3 yearswas615 (95.35%). Males were 330 (53.7%), females were 285 (46.3%) with age ranging from 0 to three years. The prevalence of NR in the 6-12 months age group was 39.2% and 37.7% in the 1-1.5 year's age group. Exclusive breastfeeding rate at, four months was 78.0% and 54.96% at six months. The breastfeeding extended until the end of their first one year in215 in¬fants (34.96%) and in 148 (24.06%) extended until around two years of age. All infants and mothers had no significant history of sun exposure and calcium and vitamin D supplementation.
Conclusion: The prevalence of symptomatic NR was high and more prevalent in the age groups of 6-12 months and 1-1.5 years than in the other age groups. Limited or non-sun exposure, insufficient calcium and vitamin D supplementation in children and mothers and exclusive breastfeeding infants with vitamin D insufficient mothers were the leading risk factors of NR.