Urinary abnormalities, hypertension, and body mass index in primary school children in Abuja, Nigeria
Objective: To determine the prevalence of urinary abnormalities, and its associations with hypertension, and body mass index among primary school children in our environment.
Design: A cross sectional school-based study.
Setting: Was among apparently healthy, school children from 24 public primary schools in, Abuja, Nigeria.
Subjects: Eight hundred and sixty-one urine samples from these children were analyzed for the presence of urinary abnormalities, blood pressure was measured, and body mass index calculated, and categorized.
Results: Of the urine sample analysed, 215(25.0%) was from urban, and 646(75.0%) from rural schools. There were 46.1% males, their mean age was 9.5±2.1years, mean systolic, and diastolic blood pressure were 102.2±11.9mmHg, and 60.3±7.9mmHg, and body mass index was 15.3±2.4kgm2
. The prevalence of urinary abnormality was 145(16.8%), underweight was 297(34.4%), while overweight, and obesity were 5(0.6%), and 12(1.4%) respectively. Pre-systolic 37(4.3%), prediastolic 10(1.2%), systolic 109 (12.7%), and diastolic 12(1.4%) hypertension prevalence was also documented. Statistical significant association was seen between proteinuria and diastolic blood pressure, OR=4.7, CI 0.9-25.0; p=0.02; and between nitrituria with body mass index, OR=1.5, CI 0.6-4.0, p=.008. Significant association was also documented between nitrituria and location of school, OR = 2.1, CI 0.1-4.4, p=0.001; and between haematuria, and nitrituria with socioeconomic status, OR=1.6, CI 0.84-3.03, p=0.001 and OR=9.1, CI 2.9-28.7, p=0.001
Conclusion: High prevalence of urinary abnormalities, systolic hypertension, and underweight was documented among the study population. There is need to establish school-based screening programs for blood pressure measurements, body mass index assessment, and urinalysis for early detection and lifestyle modifications.