Facilitators to diabetes self-management in primary care settings, patient perspectives: Phenomenological design
Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with a strong genetic component. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by destruction of pancreatic β-cells, culminating in absolute insulin deficiency. A person with T1DM needs to follow a structured self-management plan including insulin use, blood glucose monitoring, physical activity and a healthy diet.
Objective: To explore perceived facilitators of diabetes self-management among adolescents with T1DM attending Thika Level 5 Hospital and Kiambu Level 5 Hospial diabetic clinics
Design: Phenomenological study design
Setting(s): Thika Level 5 Hospital and Kiambu Level 5 Hospial diabetic clinics in Kiambu County, Kenya.
Participants: A total of 96 adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with T1DM were included in the study, 48 in the intervention arm and 48 in the control arm
Methods: Stratified random sampling was used to select adolescents aged 10 to 19 years with T1DM in the study areas. Qualitative data was collected through use of Focus Group Discussions. Content analysis was done for the qualitative data. Ethical clearance was sought from JKUAT Institutional Ethics Review Committee.
Results: Three major themes were identified as perceived facilitators for diabetes self-management. These were determination to prevent diabetes complications, use of health technological devices or software and social network (family, neighbours and peers).
Conclusions: Programmatic recommendation suggested was self-help support groups to be introduced to provide counseling in diabetes self-management practices and emotional support to adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.