Diagnosis of dual human immunodeficiency virus types 1 & 2 infections in a resouce-limited setting
AbstractBackground: The presence of dual HlV-l/HIV-2 infection in Ghana and the different drug requirements for the treatment of HlV-1 and HIV-2 presents difficulties for the treatment of dual infections with both viruses.
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of the dual sero-positive profile in treatment naive patients at a principal ART Clinic in Accra, Ghana and to investigate if rapid screening assays could be useful for diagnosis.
Design: A cross-sectional study.
Setting: A principal antiretroviral treatment centre in Accra, Ghana.
Subjects: Three hundred and twenty eight antiretroviral treatment naive patients.
Results: A total of 12 (3.7%) of patients seen were dual seropositive. There was a slight tendency of dual seropositive females being older than their HIV-l counterparts (p=0.088, CI=-l 0.833 to 0.753). Eight of the 12 of the dual seropositives were reactive for Genie II and were considered as possibly infected with both HIV-I and HIV-2. Seven (87.5%) of Genie II dual seropositives had strong intensities (> 1+) on both HIV-2 specific bands (sgp105 and gp36) on Innolia. CD4 counts were not significantly different in dual seropositives as compared to HIV-1 infected patients.
Conclusions: Dual HIV-l/HIV-2 seropositives (and possibly infections) may be common especially in older women. The Genie II will be useful as a supplemental rapid test for rapid and accurate differentiation of HIV-l and HIV-2 antibodies at treatment centres.