Risk factors for death in HIV-infected adult african patients recieving anti-retroviral therapy

  • AM Sika
  • K Wools-Kaloustian
  • AW Mwangi
  • SN Kimaiyo
  • LO Diero
  • PO Ayuo
  • WD Owino-Ong'or
  • JE Sidle
  • RM Einterz
  • CT Yiannoutsos
  • B Musick
  • WN Tierney


Objective: To determine risk factors for death in HIV-infected African patients on anti-retroviral therapy (ART).
Design: Retrospective Case-control study.
Setting: The MOH-USAID-AMPATH Partnership ambulatory HIV-care clinics in western Kenya.
Results: Between November 2001 and December 2005 demographic, clinical and laboratory data from 527 deceased and 1054 living patients receiving ART were compared to determine independent risk factors for death. Median age at ART initiation was 38 versus 36 years for the deceased and living patients respectively (p<0.0148). Median
time from enrollment at AMPATH to initiation of ART was two weeks for both groups while median time on ART was eight weeks for the deceased and fourty two weeks for the living (p<0.0001). Patients with CD4 cell counts <100/mm3 were more likely to die than those with counts >100/mm3 (HR=1.553. 95% CI (1.156, 2.087), p<0.003). Patients
attending rural clinics had threefold higher risk of dying compared to patients attending clinic at a tertiary referral hospital (p<0.0001). Two years after initiating treatment fifty percent of non-adherent patients were alive compared to 75% of adherent patients. Male gender, WHO Stage and haemoglobin level <10 grams% were associated with time to death while age, marital status, educational level, employment status and
weight were not.

Conclusion: Profoundly immunosuppressed patients were more likely to die early in the course of treatment. Also, patients receiving care in rural clinics were at greater risk of dying than those receiving care in the tertiary referral hospital.


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eISSN: 0012-835X