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Urine markers of kidney disorders and their risk associations in HIV-Infected patients attending Nyanza Provincial General Hospital in Kisumu, Western Kenya

WO Opiyo
AGM Ng'wena
VO Ofulla


Objective: To identify abnormal levels of urine metabolites and cells that serve as markers of existing kidney disorders in ambulatory HIV-infected patients.
Design: A cross sectional study.
Setting: Nyanza Provincial General Hospital’s patient support centre.
Subjects: A total of 593 HIV infected patients were studied.
Intervention: Dipstick urinalysis test was used to screen mid stream urine to detect constituents with altered levels.
Results: Out of the 593 participants, the urine of 214 (36.1%) had abnormally altered levels of urine constituents, with more females afflicted than males [41.5% vs. 27.8%; OR 1.84 (1.28-2.63), χ2= 11.08, p=0.0009]. Urobilinogen was the most common urine metabolite while ketones were least commonly present. More participants had altered levels of leucocytes than erythrocytes in urine. Patients with pyuria were three times more likely to have elevated erythrocytes in their urine as well ( χ2= 34.37, p<0.0001). Similarly, the risk of having proteinuria was three times higher in patients with pyuria (p<0.0003, Fisher’s test). Patients with erythrocytes in urine also had a threefold likelihood of having proteinuria (P<0.0003, Fisher’s test). Fewer ARV users had abnormal urine markers [15.7% vs 24.3% OR 0.62 (0.41-0.94), χ2= 5.2, p<0.05].
Conclusion: Metabolites and cellular markers of kidney disorders were prevalent in the urine of HIV patients especially females and those with pronounced immune depletion (CD4 counts equal to or below 500). ARVs use was associated with reduced manifestation of these markers.

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