Recovery of Soil Health and Crop Productivity of Degraded Cultivated Land of Northwest Ethiopian Highlands

  • Getachew Alemayehu Chair of Agronomy, Department of Plant Sciences, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box 5501, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  •  Agegnehu Shibabaw Crop Research Program, Adet Agricultural Research Center, Amhara Regional Agricultural Research Institute (ARARI), P.O.Box 527, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  • Enyew Adgo Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box 5501, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
  • Folkard Asch Chair of Crop Water Stress Management in the Tropics and Subtropics, Hans-Ruthenberg-Institute of Agricultural Sciences in the Tropics, University of Hohenheim, Germany
  •  Bernhard Freyer Division of Organic Farming, Department of Sustainable Agricultural Systems, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences in Vienna (BOKU), Austria
Keywords: Equivalent yield; Fertility depletion; Manure application; Soil degradation; Soil properties; Sustainable fertility management

Abstract

አህፅሮት

በአብዘኛው የኢትጵያ ከፍተኛ ቦታዎች በከፍተኛ የአፈር መሸርሸርና የለምነት መVጠጥ ምክንያት የሚታረሰው መሬት ጤንነቱ በጣም የተጎዳ ከመሆኑም ባሻገር ምርታማነቱን ዝቅተኛ እንዲሆን አድረጎታል፡፡ በመሆኑም ሰብልን አፈራርቆ መዝራትና የተፈጥሮ የአፈር ማዳበሪያ መጨመር በሰብል አፈር ጤናማነትና ምርታማነት ማገገም ላይ ያላቸውን ፋይዳ ለማወቅ እንደ አውሮፓዊያን ዘመን አቆጣጠር ከ2013 እስከ 2015 ዓ.ም ለሶስት ተከታታይ ዓመታት በሰሜን ምዕራብ ከፍተኛ ቦታዎች ውስጥ በሚገኝ በተጎዳ የሰብል አፈር ላይ የመስክ ጥናት ተካሂኳዷል፡፡ ሙከራውም በአምስት የሰብል አፈራረቆ መዝራትና አራት የተፈጥሮ ማዳበሪያ መጠን ጥምርታዎችን በራንደማይዝድ ኮምፕሊት ብሎክ ዲዛይን (RCBD) የተባለ ቴክኒክ በመጠቀም በአራት ድግግሞሽ ተሰርቷል:: በተከታታይ ለሶስት ዓመታት ትክክለኛ ሰብልን አፈራርቆ መዝራትና የተፈጥሮ ማዳበሪያ በመጨመር የሰብል ምርታማነትን እሰከ 1230 በመቶና የአፈር ባህሪያትን ከ20 እስከ 154 በመቶ እንዲሸሻል አድርÕል:: የዳቦ ስንዴ-የነጭ ዋጅማ-ድንች ፍርቅርቆሽ ከ75 ኩንታል በሄክታር የተፈጥሮ ማዳባሪያ ጥምርታ ከፍተኛ መሸሻል አሳይል፡፡ ስለዚህ ትክክለኛ የሰብል ፍርቅርቆሽና የተፈጥሮ ማዳበሪያ መጠቀም በከፍተና ቦታዎች ውስጥ የሚገኘውን የተጎዳ የሰብል አፈር ለምነትና ምርታማነት በከፍተና ደረጃ ማገገምና ማሻሻል እንደሚቻል የሙከራው ውጤት ያመላክታል፡፡

 

 

Abstract

Severe soil degradation and fertility depletion have resulted in poor soil health and low crop productivity in the cultivated land of most Ethiopian highlands. Thus, a three-year experiment from 2013 to 2015 was conducted to assess the potential of crop rotation and organic matter application for recovery of the soil health and crop productivity of cultivated land in northwest Ethiopian highlands. Factorial combinations of five crop rotations [bread wheat–clover–potato (R1+); clover–bread wheat undersowing lupine–potato (R2+); potato–clover–bread wheat (R3+); bread wheat undersowing lupine–potato undersowing lupine–bread wheat (R4+); and lupine–potato undersowing lupine–bread wheat (R5+)] and four manure application rates [control without manure (M1); 2.5 t ha-1 sesbania green manure SGM (M2); 5 t ha-1 fresh cattle manure FCM (M3); and 2.5 t ha-1 SGM + 5 t ha-1 FCM (M4)] were laid out in randomized complete block design with four replications at on-station and on-farm testing sites. Interaction of crop rotation and manure application significantly improved the soil properties and crop productivity of the experimental plots. Combined applications of crop rotation and manure in a three-year period resulted in the improvement of crop productivity up to 13 folds, as well as of bulk density, pH, CEC, and contents of organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, and exchangeable potassium of the experimental soils up to 25, 20, 67, 92, 154, 96 and 54 percent, respectively, compared to their baseline records. These highest improvements of physicochemical soil properties and crop productivity were mainly recorded from the interaction of R1+ and M4. The results clearly showed that long-term sound crop rotation and organic matter application have a great potential for recovering the soil health and crop productivity of degraded cultivated land in Ethiopian highlands.

 

Author Biography

Enyew Adgo, Department of Natural Resource Management, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box 5501, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia

 

 

Published
2022-03-02

Journal Identifiers


eISSN: 2415-2382
print ISSN: 0257-2605