Contamination levels of domestic water sources in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Northeast, Nigeria
The study examines the levels of contamination of domestic water sources in Maiduguri Metropolis area of Borno State based on their physicochemical and bacteriological properties. It was informed by the global concern on good drinking water quality which is an indicator of development level; hence the focus on domestic water sources to ascertain safety as water from unhygienic sources pose serious health challenges. The study dwelt on physicochemical and bacteriological parameters believed to have health implications. Experimental design was adopted, where water samples derived from four different sources i.e. from treated surface water, deep boreholes, wash boreholes and harvested rainwater were tested in the laboratory for pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cupper (Cu), cyanide (Cn), lead (Pb), fluoride (Fl) and nitrate (NO3). Also tested were faecal coliform (E. coli) and total coliform counts in the samples. The results showed that levels of physicochemical parameters are within the acceptable limit of WHO mostly in samples from deep boreholes and treated surface water sources. Samples from wash boreholes and harvested rainwater show escalated levels of some of the physicochemical parameters. The two sources also did not yield zero E. coli count. The study concludes that water from wash boreholes and harvested rainwater sources potent health risk. Thorough epidemiological study to determine health implications of drinking water from wash boreholes and harvested rainwater in the study area was offered as recommendation.
Keywords: Domestic Water, Contamination, Boreholes, Diseases