Comparative Studies on Mosses for Heavy Metals Pollution Monitoring in Sub-Urban and Rural Towns in Ekiti State
The level of heavy metals deposition in Ido-Ekiti, a sub-urban town and Ipere-Ekiti, a rural town was investigated using mosses grown in the localities as possible bio-indicators. The sources of these heavy metals were discovered to include: vehicular emission and incineration of domestic wastes and the heavy metals from these sources were discovered to pose severe toxicological risks to the environment and human health. Samples of mosses were collected at eight different locations in each town. The samples were digested in an acid and the concentration of five heavy metals; Lead (Pb), Copper (Cu), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni) in the samples were determined using a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The study reveals distinct variation in metal concentrations across the locations. It was reveals that the heavy metal concentration were mostly higher in moss samples than their corresponding substrates, this suggest that the heavy metals were concentrated in the atmosphere. The highest metal concentrations obtained in Ido-Ekiti than Ipere-Ekiti could be attributed to the higher anthropogenic activities in Ido-Ekiti. In order to minimize and control the high level of these heavy metals in the environment, the use of bio-fuel, closure of heavy industries located near residential areas, emission control legislation, reduction in fossil fuel combustion and significant decrease in leaded petrol combustion should be encouraged.
Keywords: Anthropogenic, Bio-indicator, Environment, Heavy metal, Mosses, Pollution.