Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and risk factors among dyspepsia and non-dyspepsia adults at Assosa General Hospital, West Ethiopia: A comparative study
Background: Helicobacter pylori are curved gram-negative bacteria which causes gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD). It is also an important risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and mucosal associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma.
Objective: The main aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and related risk factors among symptomatic and asymptomatic adults.
Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among dyspepsia and non-dyspepsia adults from March 2015 to October 2015 at Assosa General Hospital in Ethiopia. The presence of stool antigen of H. pylori was determined against anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody conjugated with colloid gold nitrocellulose membrane strip and a structured face-to-face interview was also administered to assess risk factors for H. pylori infection. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios at 95% CI to the different risk factors.
Results: Of a total of 230(115 dyspeptic and 115 non-dyspeptic) study participants, overall 112(48.7%) antigens of H. pylori were detected. The prevalence of H. pylori was significantly associated with which gender in both dyspepsia [AOR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.13-5.86), p=0.023] and non-dyspepsia adults [AOR=1.07, 95% CI: 1.01- 3.83, p=0.035]. Further, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was significantly higher in dyspepsia patients 67/115 (58.3%) than non-dyspepsia 45/115 (39.1%) individuals [AOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.2-13.7, p=0.002]. There was no significant association among age groups (p>0.05). Similarly, no significant association was observed in the prevalence of H. pylori with family size, educational status, marital status, toilet use habit, blood groups and occupation (p>0.05). A statistically significant association was observed between H. pylori infection and residence (p<0.05). Alcohol drinking, coffee consumption, cigarette smoking and khat chewing had no significant association with H. pylori infection (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The prevalence of H. pylori infection was high among symptomatic patients than non-symptomatic adults at Assosa General Hospital. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with which gender, residence area and hand washing habit after latrine. The burden of H. pylori that we reported necessitates the need to design and apply intervention measures that could decrease transmission and thus minimize the clinical consequences of infection.
Key words: Dyspepsia, Non-dyspepsia, Helicobacter pylori, Prevalence, Stool Antigen Test