Formal genetic maps
Formal genetic maps are databases, represented as text or graphic figures, that can be collected/organized/formulated and constructed for nearly any, and every, structural or functional region of the genetic material. Though these maps are basically descriptive, their analysis can provide relevant crucial data that can be applied for different purposes in many fields. The more comprehensive these maps are the more significant information that can be provided through their analysis. Formal genetic maps comprise four main categories: physical maps detailing the structural characteristics of different regions/sequences of both the nuclear and the mitochondrial genomes, functional maps describing the varied functional potentials of the different components of the genome/ transcriptome/proteome, experimental induced maps that are intentionally designed and constructed for specific purposes and constructed maps that are deduced and extracted from other formal maps to serve particular targets that cannot be achieved solely by the constituent maps. Formal genetic maps have a wide spectrum of applications in all fields of human genetics including basic genetics as well as medical genetics. The beneficial impact of the different types of formal genetic maps imposed their application in nearly all fields of medical genetics including basic/clinical/ diagnostic/therapeutic/prophylactic and applied genetics and made these maps indispensable tools in research studies relevant to these fields.