Cancer ameliorating potential of Phyllanthus amarus: In vivo and in vitro studies against Aflatoxin B1 toxicity
AbstractBackground: Green medicine is safe and more dependable than the costly synthetic drugs. Phyllanthus amarus is one of them that have enormous medicinal potential.
Aim: In these experiments, we have evaluated the anticlastogenic, antigenotoxic and antimutagenic potential of P. amarus extract.
Subject and methods: In this experiment we have used in vitro human lymphocyte culture and in vivo bone marrow cells of Albino mice. The parameters used were chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and cell growth kinetics (RI) both in the presence as well as in the absence of S9-mix (for in vitro study) and total aberrant cells and the frequencies of aberrations per cell (for in vivo study). Alcoholic extracts of P. amarus was obtained by Soxhlet extractor.
Results: Extracts of P. amarus significantly reduces chromosomal aberrations from 34.49%, 68.47% and 78.65% at 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h produced by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) to 19.32%, 48.00% and 51.88% level. Similarly sister chromatid exchanges were reduced from 17.76 ± 1.50 (SE) to 09.76 ± 1.20 (SE) at 48 h of treatment, whereas replication index was enhanced in vitro for each concentration and duration of treatment. It also significantly reduced the number of aberrant cells and frequency of aberrations per cell in vivo.
Conclusion: Ameliorating potential of P. amarus was dose and duration dependant. These extracts significantly reduced the mutagenicity and genotoxicity that were produced due to AFB1 treatment both in vitro and in vivo.
KEYWORDS: Antigenotoxicity; Phyllanthus amarus; Chromosomal aberration; Sister chromatid exchange; Green medicine