Gene frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups in Nigeria: A review
Background: ABO and Rhesus factor (Rh) blood type are germane in human life in genetics and clinical studies.
Aim of the study: The review was undertaken with the objective to provide data on the ABO and Rh(D) blood group distribution and gene frequency across Nigeria which is vital for blood transfusion and susceptibility to disease.
Materials and methods: Literature search for ABO/Rh blood distribution in Nigeria was done and allele frequencies of A, B, O, D and d were calculated from the frequency recorded from six geopolitical zones in Nigeria. We reported frequency of ABO and Rhesus blood type from 318,940 and 280,514 individuals respectively. Prevalence were reported as percentage and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was tested using Chi square test and p was set at 0.05 unless otherwise stated.
Results: We reported ABO blood group frequencies in the order O > A > B > AB (52.93%, 22.77%, 20.64% and 3.66%) while prevalence of Rh+ was 94.90% from total population studied. Our reported frequencies did not differ from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (goodness-of-fit X2 for ABO = 1.74 df = 3, p < 0.05). Allelic
frequencies for A(p), B(q) and O(r) are 0.143, 0.130 and 0.728 respectively.
Conclusion: The study provides information on the distribution/frequency of ABO/Rh(D) blood group and their corresponding allelic proportion in a large Nigeria study. It also revealed how the Nigerian populations in the North, South, West and East vary with respect to genetic traits. This vital information will be important for population genetics and anthropology studies and may be helpful in planning for future health strategy and blueprint, particularly planning with regards to disease management and blood transfusion medicine.