Clinical and genetic assessment of pediatric patients with Gaucher’s disease in Upper Egypt
Background: Gaucher’s disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder that results from pathogenic mutations of GBA gene encoding the enzyme glucocerebrosidase (acid b-glucosidase). Of the approximately 300 mutations associated with GD, 4 accounts for the majority of mutations seen in GD patients: N370S, L444P, 84 GG and IVS2+1.
Aim: Establishing and providing, clinical and molecular backgrounds of pediatric patients with GD in Upper Egypt.
Subjects and methods: The present study is a cross sectional study, carried out on 26 pediatric patients with GD. They were recruited from the pediatric outpatient clinics and inpatients Pediatric departments of Assiut and Qena University hospitals, Upper Egypt. Clinical evaluation and mutation analysis using commercially available strip assay kit after PCR amplification of the target gene were done for all included GD patients.
Results: Consanguinity between patients’ parents was present in 73.1% of the included patients. 76.9% of included patients were of type 1 GD, while 23.1% were of type 3 GD and none of our patients was classified as type 2 GD. The main frequent clinical presentations of GD in this study were hepatosplenomegaly (88.5%); pallor (76.9%); abdominal distension (61.5%) and musculoskeletal involvement (37.1%). Neurological abnormalities of type 3 GD included in this study were squint, seizures and delayed mental development. Five different genotypes were detected, homozygous for the mutation L444P, homozygous for the mutation N370S, heterozygous for the mutations N370S and rec Ncil, heterozygous for IVS2 +1 and rec NciI, heterozygous for L444P and IVS2 +1.
Conclusions: Non-neuropathic type 1 and type 3 GD were the only clinical types found in the present study. The most common mutant alleles found in this study were L444P and N370S.