Prevalence of Shigella, Salmonella and Cmpylobacter Species and Their Susceptibility Patters Among Under Five Children With Diarrhea in Hawassa Town, South Ethiopia
Background: Diarrhea is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under-five children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Therefore, up-to-date data on etiologic agent and susceptibility pattern are important for the management of bacterial diarrhea in under-five children, which was the main objective of this study.
Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Adare Hospital and Millennium Health Center from June 6 to October 28, 2011. A total of 158 under-five children with diarrhea were selected using convenient sampling technique. Demographic and clinical data were collected using questionnaire. Fecal samples were collected and processed for bacterial isolation, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing following standard bacteriological techniques.
Results: A total of 158 fecal samples were collected from 81(51.3%) males and 77(48.7%) females of underfive children with diarrhea. Of the 158 fecal samples, 35(22.2%) bacterial pathogens were isolated. The isolated bacteria were Campylobacter species, 20 (12.7%), Shigella species, 11 (7.0%), and Salmonella species, 4 (2.5%). The majority of the isolates were sensitive to Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, Nalidixic acid and Cotrimoxazol and high rate of drug resistance was observed against Erythromycin and Amoxicillin.
Conclusions: The finding of this study indicates that Campylobacter species were the predominant etiologies and the presence of bacterial isolates resistant to the commonly prescribed drugs for treating diarrhea in children. Therefore, periodic monitoring of etiologic agent with their drug resistant pattern is essential in the management of diarrhea in children.
Keywords: Diarrhea, Bacterial pathogen, Antimicrobial drugs, Under-five children, Hawassa, Ethiopia