Incidence and Predictors of Mortality among Preterm Neonates Admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Debre Markos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
BACKGROUND፡ Prematurity is the most frequent cause of neonatal death and the second leading cause of under-five mortality. Preterm related complications accounts for 35 % of neonatal deaths within the first week after birth. So far, most studies done in Ethiopia have focused on estimating the prevalence and determinant factors of premature neonatal death. The current study aimed to assess the incidence and predictors of mortality among preterm neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit at Debre Markos Referral Hospital.
METHODS: An institution-based retrospective follow up study was conducted among premature neonates admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at Debre Markos Referral Hospital from July 2019 to October 2019. Around 498 patients were selected randomly. A multivariable cox proportional hazards model was fitted to identify predictors of mortality.
RESULTS: A total of 498 preterm babies were followed, and the mean age for follow up at the time of admission to NICU was 15 hours ± 38 SD. Death rate in preterm was estimated to be 27.11% (95% CI: 23.3%, 31.1%). Preterm neonates with gestational age of less than 32 weeks (AHR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.24), respiratory distress syndrome (AHR=1.49; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.17), perinatal asphyxia (AHR=1.74, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.76) and congenital malformation (AHR=3.38, 95% CI: 1.21, 8.77) were statistically significant predictors of mortality among preterms.
Conclusion: The incidence of death in preterm neonates is relatively low. Gestational age less than 32 weeks, perinatal asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome and congenital malformation were found as predictors.