Assessment of glycaemic, lipid and blood pressure control among diabetic patients in Yekatit 12 Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder primarily characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and microvascular andmacrovascular complications. Near normal glycaemia will reduce the risk for development of microvascular disease complications, but aggressive management of traditional cardio-vascular risk factors (lipid management and intensive blood pressure control) are needed to reduce the likelihood of development of macrovascular disease. Appropriate care for diabetic patients requires goal setting for glycaemia, blood pressure, and lipid levels, and laboratory assessment of these parameters. The objective of this study was to assess achievement of therapeutic target goals set for different parameters among diabetic patients in Yekatit 12 Hospital. This was a retrospective study of diabetic patients (n = 581) aged ≥18 years that had been on follow up for more than a year. The frequency of patients achieving goal levels for blood sugar, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure were analyzed by reviewing medical records. Testing rates for fasting blood sugar (FBS), HbA1c, total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure were 99.7, 1.2, 43.4, 41.5 and 96.2%, respectively. The percentages of patients tested who achieved the goal were 27.8% for FBS, 54.0% for total cholesterol, 53.1% for triglyceride and 12.2% for blood pressure. Of the patients who received medication treatment, 30.3, 31.6, and 4.6% achieved the goal for FBS, total cholesterol, and blood pressure, respectively. Medications were not prescribed for 44.6% and 55.2% of patients that did not meet the goal set for blood pressure and total cholesterol, respectively. The study shows that very small percentage of patients had reached their glycaemic, lipid and blood pressure goals. More aggressive glycaemic, lipid, and blood pressure management is needed to improve care for patients.
Keywords: diabetes mellitus, glycaemic, lipid, blood pressure, therapeutic target goals