Effects of Effluents on the Quality of River Rido, Kaduna- State, Nigeria

  • Louis Buggu Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation, Abuja
  • Funmilayo Yusufu - Alfa Department of Geography, College of Education, Akwanga- Nasarawa State
  • Abigail Abenu Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Air Force Institute of Technology, Kaduna
Keywords: Downstream, heavy metals, industrial wastewater, upstream


This study examines the effect of discharged effluents on the quality of river Rido in Kaduna. Ten water samples were collected and tested for Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Mercury (Hg), Nickel (Ni) and Zinc (Zn). The results revealed that in  the dry season,  six heavy metals, namely As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni and Zn, presented mean values that were  higher  after the point of effluent discharge; while Cr, Fe and Pb  had lower values and Hg was not detected. In the wet season all the heavy metals tested, except Hg, increased in values after the point of effluent discharge. The values of As, Cd,  Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb after the discharge point, in dry and wet seasons, were greater than the maximum tolerable limits set by the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) and the World Health Organisation (WHO).  The values recorded for Zn and Cu at both dry and wet seasons were below the limit set by the Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), but the value of Cr was lower than the maximum tolerable limit only in the dry season.  The contamination of the river with heavy metals poses a grave danger to human health, as its water is used for diverse purposes. The wastewater treatment plant of KRPC should be rehabilitated and the wastewater can be pre-treated before it is discharged into the river.


Journal Identifiers

print ISSN: 0855-9414