Physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of surface water quality in part of Oban Massif, Nigeria
The present study presents preliminary investigation on the physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters of surface water samples collected, during the wet and dry seasons, from streams in Orem and environs, a typical Basement terrain in southeastern Nigeria. The intension was to evaluate the suitability of the water for domestic and agricultural uses. Results generally indicate normal water temperature, especially for the tropic; pH reflecting slightly acidic conditions; low EC and water hardness which respectively qualifies the water as excellent and soft; turbidity values that points to the water as a possible sources of water-borne diseases; DO values that are reasonable, to support good fish production, throughout the year; low levels of nutrients and heavy metals that pose no detrimental effect for the aquatic ecosystem; and low Salinity and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) that reflects water of low mineralization. The major dissolved cations points to a possible geogenic source for the major ions, while the anion levels supports agricultural and anthropogenic pollutions. Values recorded during the dry season were frequently higher than those recorded during the wet season, possibly reflecting dilution and evaporation effects during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. With minor exceptions, the levels of almost all the tested parameters were within the respective permissible limits of the Nigerian standards for drinking water quality (NSDWQ). Among the exceptions in this regards, is the unacceptable and alarmingly high volume of bacteriological inputs recorded for the waters. Clearly, this renders the water unfit for consumption and various other usage, in its present form.