Geoelectrical exploration for groundwater in crystalline basement rocks of Gbongudu community, Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria
Gbongudu community, Ibadan underlain by crystalline rocks of Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria has need for alternative water supply due to inadequacies of surface water supply and common occurrences of low yield or dry boreholes coupled with rapid development within the community. Geophysical investigation involving electrical resistivity was carried out with the aim of evaluating the groundwater potential of the community. Thirty-three (33) Vertical Electrical Soundings were acquired across the community adopting Schlumberger electrode configuration with current electrode separation (AB) varying from 2 to 200 m. The acquired field data were interpreted using partial curve matching with suitable auxiliary chart and “RESIST” resistivity sounding interpretation software was also used for iteration. The results revealed two to five geo-electric layers, namely, topsoil, clayey soil, lateritic clay, weathered layer, fractured unit and fresh basement. The weathered and the fractured units form the aquiferous zones in the area investigated. Thematic maps of geoelectric and Dar-Zarrouk parameters produced from the interpreted VES data are aquifer unit (weathered layer) thickness map, aquifer unit (weathered layer) resistivity map, overburden thickness map, basement resistivity map, basement topography map, reflection coefficient map, total longitudinal conductance map, total transverse resistance map and electrical anisotropy (coefficient of anisotropy) map. The thematic maps were combined to form a single component which gives the groundwater potential map of the study area. The groundwater potential map was used to classify the study area into poor, low and good aquifer potential zones. The study reveals that the weathered and fractured zone that occur in the southeastern part of the study area constitute the water bearing zone which can be regarded as good groundwater potential. This study has provided evidence on the hydrogeologic framework and subsurface nature of main aquifer units in the area.
KEY WORDS: Groundwater exploration, RESIST, Dar-Zarrouk parameters, Electrical anisotropy, Borehole drilling.