The ecological dynamics and trajectories of bioactive compounds in plants of the genus - Anthocliesta found in parts of Niger Delta Ecological Zone, Nigeria
Several studies have revealed the botany of Anthocliesta species found in parts of Niger Delta, which include the species ecodiversity, various lines of taxonomic studies, ethnomedicine, ethnobotany, etc. However, records have not shown the dynamic trajectories of bioactive phytochemicals in relation to ecological niche adaptation and geographical location among the species. This informed the present research with the aim of assessing in qualitative terms the bioactive presence and dynamics in various parts of the species under their ecological preference. Determination of secondary metabolites in leaves, stem and root of four species of Anthocleista from four States in the Niger Delta ecological region of Nigeria was carried out using standard methods. Result revealed seven bioactive compounds with anthraquinone totally absent from all the species in the four locations. The seven bioactive compounds were apparently more in the leaves than other parts of the plants. Among the four locations alkaloid, triterpene, glycoside, carbohydrate, flavonoid and tannin were high in foliar parts with saponin in moderate level in the stem part of the plants in Akwa-Ibom State. Similarly a high bioactive level was recorded in foliar parts in Cross River and Rivers States despite the moderate level of flavonoid and tannin in Cross River and alkaloid, carbohydrate and flavonoid in Rivers State. The Bayelsa State study location recorded moderate level in all bioactive compounds in various parts of the plants with exception of high level saponin in leaf and stem of all the plants. This study reveals that distribution of natural products (secondary metabolites) varies greatly among plant species, individual plants, organs and tissues, during development and maturation, seasonal fluctuations and variation in geographical location.
Keywords: Bioactive compound, trajectories, Anthocleista, species ecodiversity, Niger Delta