Ghana Medical Journal

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Development and structural validity of a Nigerian culture- and environment-friendly low back pain outcome measure: Ibadan Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire

Bolanle A. Nottidge, Adesola C. Odole, Nse A. Odunaiya, Matthew O. Akpa, Olufunmilayo I. Fawole, Aderonke O. Akinpelu


Background: Low Back Pain (LBP) is the leading cause of disability globally. Standardized outcome measures for measuring LBP disability exist but none was developed with consideration for the Nigerian culture and environment.

Objective: This study was aimed to develop a Nigerian culture- and environment-friendly LBP scale, the Ibadan Low Back Pain Disability Questionnaire (ILBPDQ).

Methods: Items on ILBPDQ were devised from literature review, interview of patients (231 consecutively-sampled patients with chronic non-specific LBP) and 12 professionals experienced in LBP management and were contentvalidated.
The first draft of the questionnaire underwent pretesting twice among individuals with chronic non-specific LBP (n=35 and 114 respectively), factor analysis and experts’ reviews to produce the final version.

Results: The final scale comprised 18 items with a two-factor structure (common Activity of Daily Living [ADL] and culture-specific ADL). It has eigen value ≥ 1 and explained 60% of variance. Items on ILBPDQ covered important constructs relevant to an average Nigerian
patient with LBP.

Conclusion: A scale for assessing disability in LBP is made available for use in Nigeria and similar populations.

Keywords: Low back pain, Outcome measure, Ibadan, Development, Structural validity

Funding: None declared
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