Main Article Content
Objective: Identification of dietary patterns and their association with socio-demographic factors.
Design: Community-based cross-sectional study design
Setting: Urban and rural communities in Abia State, Nigeria
Participants: Eight hundred and sixty-eight (868) male and female adults aged 20 to 59 years
Methods: Identification of Dietary patterns (DP) by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based on the consumption of 10 food groups, assessed using a 7-day qualitative food frequency questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses evaluated the association between identified patterns and socio-economic factors.
Results: Two dietary patterns ‘traditional and convenience DPs were identified, explaining 52% of the total variance. The traditional DP was loaded with starchy staples, vegetable soups/sauces, and animal proteins. The convenience DP was characterised by high factor loading of processed cereals, carbonated drinks and alcoholic beverages. Larger households (>3) had lower odds of adhering to high traditional DP [AOR =0.633; 95% CI (0.429-0.934); p = 0.021]. Females [AOR =1.586; 95% CI (1.104-2.279); p = 0.013] and middle-aged adults (AOR = 1.750; 95% CI (1.075-2.848);p = 0.024] were more likely to adhere to the convenience DP, whereas, the odds of adhering to the convenience pattern was lower among adults residing in rural areas [AOR =0.3161.586; 95% CI (0.219-0.456); p = 0.001].
Conclusion: Socio-economic variables (age, gender, household size and place of residence) were associated with dietary patterns among community dwellers in Nigeria.