Recent advances in the Management of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a group of common metabolic disorders in which a person has high blood glucose either because the body does not produce enough insulin or because cells do not respond to the insulin. The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. There is an increase in the prevalence of type 1 diabetes also, but the main cause of the diabetic epidemic is type2 diabetes mellitus, which accounts for more than 90 percent of all diabetes cases. Life style modication, oral hypoglycaemic agents, insulin therapy and islet cell transplantation are some of the approaches in the management of diabetes mellitus. Several classes of oral hypoglycemic agents like sulfonylureas, biguanides and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are available for the treatment of type II diabetes and newer drugs such as GLP-1 mimetic ,DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT-2 inhibitors, dual peroxisome proliferation activated receptor(PPAR) agonist and G-protein receptor agonist are now available or are being introduced. The goals of this article are to review the current treatments and innovations in the management of diabetes mellitus, highlight the basic pharmacology for new drugs used in diabetes mellitus and discuss the indications and treatment strategies with regards to the newer therapies.