Phytochemical Screening and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of the Fruits and Leaves of Allanblackia floribunda Oliv (Guttiferae)

  • GA Ayoola
  • SS Ipav
  • MO Sofidiya
  • AA Adepoju-Bello
  • HAB Coker
  • TO Odugbemi

Abstract

Purpose: To compare the phytochemical constituents in the leaves and fruits of Allanblackia floribunda and determine their free radical scavenging activity. Methods: The fruit and leaves of AF collected from the uncultivated farmlands of Okeigbo, Ondo State, Nigeria, were dried, milled and extracted with methanol. Phytochemical screening was carried out according to standard procedures. Free radical scavenging activity was determined by measuring the decrease in the visible absorbance of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) on addition of the plant extract. The mean inhibitory concentration (IC50), which is the concentration of extract needed to decrease the initial absorbance of DPPH by 50% was determined graphically. Total phenolic, flavonoids and proanthocyanidin contents were determined by spectrophotometric methods. Results: Alkaloids, anthraquinones, tannins, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides were found to be present in both the fruits and leaves. Only AF fruit contained phlobatannins. IC50 values of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.1 mg/ml were recorded for Vitamin E, AF leaves and AF fruits respectively. Total phenolic, total flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were 65, 0.07 and 2.38 mg/g of powdered plant material for AF fruits, and 12, 51.35, 19.5 mg/g of powdered plant material for AF leaves as gallic acid, rutin and catechin equivalents respectively. Conclusion: AF leaves are five times more potent as a free radical scavenger compared to the fruits though the fruit was found to contain a higher phenolic content. Keywords: Free radical scavenger, phenolic content, proanthocyanidin, flavonoids, DPPH, Allanblankia floribunda, tannins, steroids, alkaloids and anthraquinones.
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