Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in Sudan is less compared with international reports. Whether there is concomitant difference in the risk factors for GDM among Sudanese women is uncertain. Aim: This study investigated the common risk factors for GDM among Sudanese pregnant women. Materials and Method: The study involved a control group of 60 apparently healthy pregnant women matched with a test group of 60 pregnant women with GDM. ata were obtained through a questionnaire, proper examination, including anthropometric measurements, and laboratory evaluation for glycaemic control. Results: The age (mean (M) ± standard deviation (SD) = 32.8±7.4 years) and body mass index (BMI) (M±SD = 27.9±4.9 Kg/m2) were significantly higher in pregnant ladies with GDM compared with the control group (M±SD = 29.7±6.0 years, 25.1±3.1 Kg/m2 respectively) (P < 0.02 for both). There were significant associations between presence of GDM and age ≥ 30 years (relative risk (RR) = 1.28, P = 0.016), BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2 (RR = 1.48, P = 0.001), family history of diabetes mellitus (DM) (RR = 1.8, P = 0.002), glucosuria (RR = 2.39, P = 0.000), proteinuria (RR = 1.98, P = 0.008). In contrast, parity and urinary tract infections failed to demonstrate significant associations with GDM. Conclusion: The strongest predictor of GDM in Sudanese women is glucosuria, followed by proteinuria, family history of DM, BMI ≥ 25 Kg/m2 and age ≥ 30 years in a descending pattern.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, gestation, risk factors, Sudan