Determination of lead and cadmium contents of dry cell batteries available in Nigeria

  • IC Nnorom Abia State University, P. M. B 2000, Uturu, Abia State, Nigeria
  • O Osibanjo University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria


Lead and cadmium content of different brands and sizes (N=38) of dry cell batteries (zinc-carbon Leclanche systems) available in Nigeria were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The average Pb and Cd content of the dry cells are 1077.9±751.7mg/kg (Range 42-3170mg/kg) and 108.3±81.4mg/kg (Range 4.6-410mg/kg) respectively. The mean Pb and Cd contents of dry cells with metal outer cover were significantly lower (p < 0.005) than the corresponding values for dry cells with non-metallic cover. The highest Pb and Cd values were observed in dry cell batteries imported from China. Higher mean Pb and Cd value were observed in dry cells from China (1368.36 vs. 151.47mg/kg), compared to values for dry cells from Indonesia (1032 vs. 84.4mg/kg), Japan (715.2 vs. 131.48mg/kg) and Korea (1137.5 vs. 81.45). Lower Pb and Cd values were obtained in dry cells from Malaysia (709 vs. 12.5mg/kg), Spain (702 vs. 65.8mg/kg), United States (303 vs. 11.1mg/kg) and in the only surviving local brand (408 vs. 34.5mg/kg).Our study revealed that there is an urgent need to introduce an adequate well-established system for collection, separation, storage and management of municipal and industrial wastes containing primary and secondary battery wastes and similar toxic materials to halt the open burning of such wastes within inhabited areas. There is an urgent need to develop in Nigeria an appropriate technology following the principles of waste minimization and sustainable development.

Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management Vol. 10 (3) 2006: 37-41

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eISSN: 2659-1502
print ISSN: 1119-8362