Assessment of Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Surface Water from River Niger, Illushi, Edo State, Nigeria
The physical and chemical characteristics of River Niger, Illushi an important fishing site in Edo State which is currently impacted by human activities, was investigated between the month of April and November, 2017. Surface water samples were collected from three (3) sampling stations covering a total distance of 2600metres from upstream to downstream, and a total of seventeen (17) physical/chemical parameters were investigated. Findings
from this study revealed that Air temperature had an average mean value of 27±0.72 mg/L, Water temperature was 26.21±0.63 mg/L, the river was generally acidic with the average pH of 6.27±0.18, Turbidity was 107.28±30.9, Conductivity was 57.08±8.29, Total Dissolved Solid was 34.9±4.78, Total Suspended Solid was 71.7±21.17 mg/L, Alkalinity was 26.62±4.78 mg/L, Chloride was 17.29±1.41 mg/L, Hardness was 26.81±2.59 mg/L, Phosphate was 2.20±0.09 mg/L, Nitrate was 3.19±0.94 mg/L, Sulphate was 25.81±10.78 mg/L, Calcium was 8.69±1.74 mg/L,
Magnesium was 2.66±0.39 mg/L, Dissolved Oxygen was 4.47±0.46 mg/L and Biochemical Oxygen Demand was 7.29±3.25 mg/L. This study depicts that turbidity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, air, and water temperature were higher than the recommended limit for drinkable water. It, therefore, stresses the need for compliance of environmental laws to prevent the river from further deterioration.
Keywords: Surface water, physicochemical parameters, River Niger, Illushi.