Overview of laboratory animal lifestyle, care, and management: a case study of albino rats
The review was design to look at an overview of laboratory animal’s lifestyle, care and management using albino rats as case study. The use of laboratory animals (albino rats) in scientific research can be dated as far back as 16th century. Thus, using laboratory animals in scientific research as model to human with expectation that such use will provide either significant new knowledge or lead to improvement in human and animal well-being should be considered as a privilege granted by society to research communities. The environment is central to laboratory animal care, management and welfare and must be considered throughout the breeding holding and experimental phase under standard laboratory conditions and a well-controlled environment to keep them healthy. The factors affecting health and welfare of the animals include noise, temperature, humidity, ventilation and daylight/darkness. The nutritional requirement of some laboratory animals are fairly documented, the animals however, should have access to clean reliable water at libitum and wholesome, clean nutritious palatable diet on regular basis to ensure the appropriate intake of protein, fat, carbohydrate vitamins, salt, minerals and fibre. Euthanizing of laboratory animals should be carried out in three main circumstances which include culling of unwanted animals, relief of suffering in individual animal and the techniques chosen should strive to achieve quick, quiet and painless death and thus, should not induce fear, apprehension or panic in the animal. The other animals left should be well protected from the sight, sound, and smell of the procedure and therefore, not to be carried out in public areas.
Keywords: Laboratory, Animal, Rats, Management and Welfare