Bacterial quality assessment of drinking water for layer chicken managed under battery cage and deep litter systems from Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria
This study assessed the bacterial quality of drinking water for layer chicken managed under battery cage (BC) and deep litter (DL) systems in Sokoto Metropolis. A total of 18 samples were collected from the two systems. Serial dilution, spread plate innoculation, colony count, subculturing, gram staining and biochemical characterization were carried out according to standard methods .The mean count concentrations in BC (1.4×106, 7.2×106 and 3.4×106) were relatively higher than those recorded in DL (1.57×107,4.52×107, and 1.2×106) .The mean count (CFU/ml)for BC was 72.11111 and that of DL was 207.4444.The bacteria determined in BC were: : Bacillus species, Micrococcus varians, Corynebacterium xerosis and Lactobacillus fermenti; whereas, those determined in DL were Micrococcus varians, Lactobacillus fermenti, E. coli, and Corynebacterium xerosis; thus E.coli was only recorded in DC, but the rest were found in both BC and DL. In BC, the most frequent was Corynebacterium xerosis, then Micrococcus varians, and lastly Bacillus species and Lactobacillus fermenti ; whereas, in DL Corynebacterium xerosis was also most frequent, then Micrococcus varians ,then the rests. Thus, C. xerosis was the most overall prevalent, then Micrococcus varians, then the rests. This work depicted that water used in the BC and DL systems surveyed contains a higher and diverse concentration of bacteria .This portend of contamination and unsanitary outcome is capable of harming the health, production, and ultimately the public health. More water treatment innovative methods should be use, regular and proper cleaning of farm and drinkers are needed and farmers need to be educated.
Keywords: water quality, Corynebacterium xerosis, Lactobacillus fermenti, Sokoto metropolis, Bacillus species