Effect of Temperature on the Incidence of Cerebro-Spinal Meningitis and Its Management in Funtua Local Government Area, Katsina State, Nigeria
This study was aimed at analysing the effect of temperature on the incidence of cerebro-spinal meningitis and its management in Funtua General Hospital of Katsina State, Nigeria from 1986-2015. For each year, monthly and annual incidence of CSM occurrence in the study area for the 30 years period was subjected to time series analysis. Linear trend line equation was fitted in order to determine the direction of change in the incidence of CSM. The relationship between temperature and the incidence of meningitis was analysed using simple correlation. To determine the management method of CSM in the area, a questionnaire was used to generate information from sampled respondents and analysed using descriptive statistics. The monthly distribution of CSM cases (1986-2015) indicated April and March had the highest incidence cases (1606 and 1128 respectively) while the lowest cases were recorded in September and October with (1 case) each. The seasonal variation also showed that the highest incidence cases fell within the hot-dry season which mark the period with the highest average temperatures while the lowest incidence cases fell within the hot-wet season when humidity is high in the area. Annual trend of CSM indicated an increasing trend (approximately 60 persons) over the 30year period in the study area. There is a significant and positive relationship between mean monthly temperature and incidence of meningitis with an observed value of (p < 0.05 and r = 0.592). The observed correlation (r = -0.141, p>0.05) indicated that there was negative and insignificant relationship between annual temperature and the incidence of meningitis in the study area. In conclusion, meningitis in the study area over the 30years under review has been a recurrent epidemic however; the rate of occurrence differs from year to year. Majority (78%) used the orthodox method to manage CSM while 22% used the traditional method who claimed it was effective as they recovered from the disease.