Main Article Content

Extraction, Characterization and Determination of Physicochemical Properties of Biodiesel obtained from Desert Date (Balanites aegyptiaca) Seed Oil

M. Usman
H. Ibrahim
E. B. Agbaji


Biodiesel is a domestically produced, clean-burning, renewable substitute for petroleum diesel. Using biodiesel as a vehicle fuel increases energy security, improves air quality and the environment, and provides safety benefits. . This study extracted, characterized and determined the physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced from Desert date (B. aegyptiaca) seed oil using Soxhlet extraction method with n-hexane as the extraction solvent. The oil obtained was characterized using FTIR and GC-MS analyses and its physicochemical properties determined. The oil obtained was subsequently transesterified using methanol and KOH catalyst. The obtained biodiesel was characterized and its physicochemical properties determined. The result showed that B. aegyptiaca seed oil had density of 0.9 g/cm3, viscosity of 6 cSt at 40 0C and viscosity of 2.5 cSt at 100 0C. The cloud and pour points of the oil was 21 and 9 0C respectively. The oil comprised of eleven fatty acids; predominantly linoleic acid (21.88 %), vaccenic acid (13.90 %) and palmitic acid (10.96 %). The biodiesel had density of 0.88 g/cm3, kinematic viscosity of 4.2 cSt, cloud and pour points of 16 0C and 7 0C respectively. The biodiesel also had free fatty acid (FFA) of 0.79 %, iodine value of 42 mgI2/100g and saponification value of 176. The biodiesel primarily consisted of 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid methyl ester (45.46 %), Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester (20.12 %), Butyl-9,12-Octadecadienoate (12.43 %) and Heptadecanoic acid-16-methyl ester (10.43 %). The properties obtained for the biodiesel were comparable to those of biodiesels reported in literature and thus, shows remarkable potentials to be used as substitute to fossil-based diesel fuel.

Journal Identifiers

eISSN: 2659-1502
print ISSN: 1119-8362