Hydrochemical Characteristics of Springs in Oke–Igbo, Ondo State, Nigeria
This study was carried out to determine the hydrochemical characteristics of six springs in Oke-Igbo community, Ondo state, Nigeria. Water samples were collected from the upper, middle and lower course of each spring and analyzed for temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total alkalinity, total hardness, sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulphate (SO42-), bicarbonate (HCO3-), chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), bacteria count and Escherichia coli. Data collected were presented in simple descriptive statistics and tables. Results showed that most of the measured parameters fell within the maximum acceptable standards set by World Health Organization (WHO) with the exception of microbiological parameter in which high coliform colonies were observed at the lower courses of each spring. The pH of the springs was generally low ranging from slightly acidic to acidic. The presence of bacteria count and Escherichia coli in the springs’ water indicated fecal pollution, which could result in related water-borne diseases. Boiling of the spring water, is therefore, recommended before consumption.