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Geospatial Distribution of Pedestrian Injuries and Associated Factors in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area, Uganda

Frederick Oporia
Nazarius Mbona Tumwesigye
John Bosco Isunju
Rebecca Nuwematsiko
Abdulgafoor Mahmood Bachani
Angela Nakanwagi Kisakye
Mary Nakafeero
Qingfeng Li
Fiston Muneza
George Kiwanuka
Nino Paichadze
Olive Kobusingye


Background: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are the leading cause of death among 15-29-year olds, of which 22% are pedestrians. In Uganda, pedestrians constitute 43% of RTIs. Over 52% of these injuries occur in Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). However, information on geospatial distribution of RTIs involving pedestrians and associated factors is scanty. We established the geospatial distribution of pedestrian injuries and associated factors in GKMA, Uganda.

Methods: We conducted a mixed methods cross sectional study in three districts of GKMA. We used a structured questionnaire to interview 332 injured pedestrians at ten purposively selected health facilities from May to July 2017. We used a modified Australian Walkability Audit Tool to assess road characteristics and videography to capture road user behaviour at reported injury sites. Injury location (outcome) was categorized into three locations according to primary land use: residential areas, commercial/business areas and bar & entertainment areas. The injury hotspots were then mapped out using Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS). Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with injury location and adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) reported at 95% confidence interval.

Results: Males represented 66.5% (221/332) of the sample. Pedestrian injuries were most prevalent among 15-29-year olds (45.5%, 151/332). Most (47.2%, 157/332) injuries occurred in commercial and business areas. Namasuba-Zana (13%, 43/332) followed by Nakawa-Kireka on Jinja road (9.7%, 32/332) had the highest number of injuries. Presence of speed humps was protective (APR=0.13, 95%CI 0.01-0.93). However, zebra crossings (APR=6.41, 95% CI: 1.14-36.08) and clear traffic (APR=6.39, 95%CI: 2.75-14.82) were associated with high prevalence of pedestrian injuries.

Conclusion: Presence of speed humps was safer for pedestrians but zebra crossings and clear traffic had more than 6-fold risk for injuries. Findings suggest that constructing speed humps on the roads in busy areas and sensitizing motorists to respect zebra crossings could reduce pedestrian injuries.

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eISSN: 2664-2824