Lipid Profile and Insulin Resistance in Pregnant Women with Family History of Diabetes Mellitus
Background: A history of diabetes mellitus in first degree relatives is a major risk factor for diabetes mellitus (DM) and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). The underlying disorders in DM and GDM are known to have genetic predispositions. The pregnancy state is a stressor that reveals underlying metabolic derangements particularly with respect to glucose and lipid metabolism. We investigated if the lipid profile and insulin resistance in pregnant women with family history of DM is different from those without such history.
Methos: Glucose, insulin and lipids (total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoproteins) were measured at 26 to 32 weeks of pregnancy in fasting blood samples obtained from 75 pregnant non diabetic women (Twenty five with a history of first degree relative with DM and fifty women without such history). The insulin resistance was assessed using Homeostatic Assessment Model (HOMA-IR).
Results: The ages of the subjects ranges from 20 to 40 years with a mean (S.D) of 30.6 (4.8). The mean gestational age of the subjects was 28.2(1.2) years. The mean fasting glucose, fasting insulin and Total Cholesterol, Triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein, Low Density Lipoprotein and HOMA-IR were not significantly different in both groups. Family history of DM was significantly associated with severe insulin resistance (P<0.05).
Conclusion: The underlying pathophysiologic derangements in diabetes may well be ongoing in women with family history of DM. A strict follow-up plan should be instituted for this category of pregnant women during and after pregnancy.