Safety of Family Replacement Donors vs. Voluntary Non-Remunerated Donors in Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Ghana: A Comparative Study
AbstractBlood safety remains a challenge to many countries in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana due to poorly planned blood donation exercises in the various communities. Blood and its products usual-ly come from two main sources; voluntary non-remunerated donors (VNRD) and family replace-ment donors (FRD). In Ghana, and in many developing countries, FRDs seem to be the major source of blood supply whilst in developed countries VNRDs are the major source. This study de-termined and compared the prevalence of four transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs); HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and Treponema palladium (TP) among FRDs and VNRDs at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital to compare the safety of blood from these two groups. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the transfusion medicine unit (TMU) of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital between March and May 2014. A total of 400 blood donors (200 FRDs and 200 VNRDs) were enrolled in this study after obtaining written informed consent. Blood samples from each of the donors were then tested for HIV, hepatitis B and C, and syphilis using rapid test kits. ABO and Rhesus blood groups were also determined for all the samples. Prev-alence of TTIs was higher among FRDs (23.5%) than in VNRDs (3.5%) with males (47) been more infected than females (7). Age group 21- 30 years was the most infected, followed by age groups 31- 40 years, 11- 20 years, 41- 50 years and 51- 60 years respectively. FRDs among the younger age group, 17- 30 years, were also more infected than their VNRD counterparts. Repeat blood donors among the VNRD group, were found to be safer than their first-time counterparts. Overall, TTIs were significantly higher in the FRD group than in the VNRD group. The prevalence rates of all the infections tested were higher in the FRD group compared to the VNRD group. FRDs were the higher risk population for TTIs in comparison to VNRDs. VNRDs should therefore be encouraged to donate blood regularly.
Keywords: Transfusion Transmissible Infections, HBsAg, HCV, HIV, Treponema pallidum